Consumer Bankruptcy

Many Americans find themselves in serious debt. The creditors keep calling, but the debt justkeeps growing. Historically, debtors were sent to prison. But in America, we have a system of bankruptcy law that provides relief and a fresh start to those who are in financial trouble.

Bankruptcy is one of the alternatives for financial distress. You need to examine theoptions available to you for dealing with your financial problems and decide which course ofaction is best for you.Some people in financial trouble can improve their situation by negotiating directly withcreditors. Others get help from a local financial counseling program or a consumer credit
counseling service with experience in negotiating with creditors and in formulating andestablishing repayment plans. For some people, some form of bankruptcy may be the only realistic alternative.

The choice of a remedy is not always easy. As a first step, consider the pros and cons of filing for bankruptcy. Then consider which type of consumer bankruptcy is right for you:

Chapter 7 (“straight bankruptcy”) or Chapter 13 (sometimes called “wage earner bankruptcy”).

Each of these types of bankruptcy is a section of the federal Bankruptcy Code, under which bankruptcies are filed all over the country. Bear in mind that a new bankruptcy law, the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, came into effect on October 17, 2005. This law made several changes to existing bankruptcy law and procedures, including making it more difficult for some people to file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7. The new law
will be discussed in more detail below.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide you with information that will help you make
informed choices and to provide references to other sources of information. Also, see the chapter
on Family Law for topics regarding bankruptcy and marriage and the chapter on consumer credit
for bankruptcy-related discussions.
If after you have reviewed this material you decide to seek protection in bankruptcy, you
should select a lawyer who is familiar with bankruptcy law.
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Bankruptcy Basics
Jason has been spending out of control for months. Most of his income is spent paying credit
card bills, and he needs to borrow more just to pay the rent. Jason’s debts keep growing and he
is falling behind on some payments. Jason thinks he may have to declare bankruptcy, but he is
worried that it will have implications if he wants to get a loan in the future.
Bankruptcy is a serious legal procedure with long-term consequences. Before he takes that step,
Jason should learn more about bankruptcy and how it works, and explore his other options with a
credit counselor.
Alternatives to Bankruptcy
Q. Right now, I cannot pay my debts. Besides bankruptcy, do I have any options?
A. Yes, there are alternatives that you may use to take care of debts that you cannot pay.
Creditors might be willing to settle their claim for a smaller cash payment, or they might be
willing to stretch out the term of the loan and reduce the size of the payments. This would allow
you to pay off the debt by making smaller payments over a longer period of time. The creditor
would eventually receive the full economic benefit of its bargain.
You may also find you are judgment proof and do not need to file for bankruptcy to
protect your property and wages. Judgment proof simply means that you have so little money
and property that you couldn’t pay a court judgment against you. Under state exemption laws,
creditors are not allowed to seize certain income, such as social security or wages below certain
levels, and personal property. If there’s no point in creditors going after you in court, there may
be less reason for you to declare bankruptcy.
Discuss this option with your credit counselor. However, remember that if you don’t
declare bankruptcy, the creditors can continue their collection efforts and will be able to enforce
court judgments against you if your financial situation improves.
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Q. Is there anybody in particular I should contact about these options?
A. Yes. If you are behind on your payments, the collectors for each of your creditors may already
be calling or writing you. You might be more successful if you phone each creditor, ask for the
collection department, ask and note the name of the person you talk to, and explain your intent to
repay the account and your need to stretch out the number of monthly payments and reduce the
dollar amount of each payment. You might offer to come to the collection department office to
discuss your situation. Ask each creditor to agree to a voluntary plan for the repayment of your
In dealing with creditors, ask them to reduce late fees and interest. Get all agreements in
writing before making payment. If you reach a settlement for a single payment, when the
payment is made be sure to include language on the face and back of the check indicating that
the payment is “in full, final and complete satisfaction of account no. xxxx.” Never give creditors
information that would enable them to directly access your checking account. Maintain control
over the payment.
Q. I owe money to many creditors. What should I do?
A. The problem of dealing with many creditors is that some of them might not want to give you
more time to pay without knowing what the other creditors are willing to do. Unless your debts
are very large, it will be difficult for you to arrange for a meeting of your creditors and negotiate
a reduction in your monthly payments or the amount of your debt. You can seek the help of a
lawyer to negotiate an arrangement with your creditors. Some universities, local courts, military
bases, credit unions, and housing authorities have credit counseling programs, but may not have
the ability or experience to negotiate with your creditors to gain their consent to reduce your
monthly payments.
Your best bet may be to seek the help of a profit or nonprofit consumer credit counseling
service (CCCS). As noted in the chapter on Consumer Credit, you can find the nearest CCCS by
calling 1 800 388 2227 or going online at Some of these centers charge a
small monthly service fee. However, you should be aware that creditors provide most of the
support for financial counseling services. Some observers think that, as a result, they may tend to
downplay bankruptcy as an option.
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The repayment plans arranged through credit counseling centers enable you to make
monthly payments that are then distributed by the program among creditors until all your debts
are paid in full. Creditors usually prefer this kind of plan, since they will eventually get more of
their money with this approach than they will under Chapter 7 bankruptcy.
Under a repayment plan through a financial counseling service, you still might have to
pay interest charges on your debts. However, many creditors will waive or reduce interest
charges and delinquency fees.
A Word of Warning
Be cautious when seeking out a for-profit counseling service. If you choose a for-profit service
be sure you understand its fees. Investigate the service and its credentials carefully. Consider
calling your Better Business Bureau for information on the service.
Q. Should I consolidate my debt?
A. Occasionally, you may buy time by consolidating your debts. That is, you can take out a big
loan to pay off your smaller debts. The primary danger of this is that it is very easy to go out and
use your credit cards to borrow even more. In that case, you end up with an even bigger total
debt, and no additional income to meet the monthly payments. Indeed, if you have taken out a
second mortgage on your home to get the consolidation loan, you might lose your home as well.
You should also analyze the interest rate thoroughly. Make sure your consolidation loan’s
interest rate is lower than your credit cards’ rate
Bankruptcy Defined
Q. What exactly is bankruptcy?
A. Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people and businesses can obtain a fresh
financial start when they are in such financial difficulty that they cannot repay their debts as
agreed. The fresh start is achieved by eliminating all or a portion of existing debts and/or by
stretching out the monthly payments under the protection and supervision of a court. The process
is also designed to protect creditors, because general unsecured creditors share equally in
whatever payments the debtor can afford to make.
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During your bankruptcy case, most creditors cannot try to collect their debts from you
directly. Nor can they try to collect from you after the conclusion of the case for any and all
“discharged” debts (described later in this chapter).
Q. What is the process of filing for bankruptcy?
A. Filing for bankruptcy is a very personal, very serious decision. Most people file when they
have made a good-faith effort to repay their debts, but see no way out other than to file for
bankruptcy. Such people and businesses may declare bankruptcy by filing a petition with the
U.S. Bankruptcy Court—that is, a request that the court provide protection and relief under the
Bankruptcy Code. In addition to that request, the debtor must provide information about his or
her assets, liabilities, income and expenditures. Complete disclosure, candor, and honesty are
required. Often, debtors have a lawyer prepare and file the petition and other information for
them, but some debtors represent themselves.
Use Bankruptcy with Caution
Bankruptcy may be the best, or only, solution for extreme financial hardship. However, it should
be used only as a last resort, since it always has long-lasting consequences. The record of a
bankruptcy can remain in your credit files in credit bureaus for as long as 10 years, which is a
long time in today’s economic system, in which so much depends on having good credit.
Moreover, there are limits on how often you can fully benefit from certain forms of bankruptcy.
If you have equity in your home or car you may lose the asset, since that equity may be realized
for the benefit of your creditors. (Most of this depends on state law exemptions).
Study the pros and cons carefully before resorting to bankruptcy as a means of solving
your economic troubles and be sure you understand the types of bankruptcy cases you can file.
Do not wait until the last-minute to seek help—the day before a foreclosure or court date may be
too late to get good advice or to take advantage of non-bankruptcy options. Get advice when you
find you cannot pay your monthly expenses in full for more than three months, or if you face a
sudden large debt, such as a medical bill, for which you cannot make payment arrangements.
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Secured and unsecured debts
A secured debt is one that the creditor is entitled to collect by seizing and selling certain assets
of the debtor if payments are missed, such as a home mortgage or car loan. With those two major
exceptions, most consumer debts are unsecured, and creditors are not allowed to seize your
assets if you miss payments.
Q. What are the advantages of filing for bankruptcy?
A. There are several advantages to filing for bankruptcy.
By far the most important advantage is that debtors may obtain a fresh financial start. As
we shall see below, consumers who file for Chapter 7 may be discharged from (forgiven from
paying) most unsecured debts.
You may be able to exempt (that is, keep) many of your assets, although state laws vary
widely in defining which assets you may keep.
Another big advantage is that collection efforts must stop. As soon as your petition is
filed, there is by law an automatic stay, which prohibits most collection activity. If a creditor
continues to try to collect the debt, the creditor may be cited for contempt of court or ordered to
pay damages. The stay applies even to the loan that you may have obtained to buy your car. If
you continue to make payments, it is unlikely that your creditor will do anything. However, if
you miss payments your creditor will probably petition to have the stay terminated in order either
to repossess the car or to renegotiate the loan.
Federal law protects your right to file for bankruptcy. For example, you cannot be fired
from your job solely because you filed for bankruptcy.
Getting Credit After Bankruptcy
A study by the Credit Research Center at Purdue University found that about one-third of
consumers who filed for bankruptcy had obtained lines of credit within three years of filing.
One-half had obtained them within five years. However, the new credit itself may reflect the
record of bankruptcy. For example, if you might have been eligible for a bank card with a 14
percent rate before bankruptcy, the best card that you can get after bankruptcy might carry a rate
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of 20 percent—or you might have to rely on a card secured by a deposit that you make with the
credit card issuer. Use your cards only when necessary, and pay them off each month.
Q. Is there more than one type of bankruptcy?
A. Yes, there are several types, each provided for in a separate chapter of the federal Bankruptcy
Proceedings under Chapter 7 (straight bankruptcy) involve surrendering most of the
borrower’s assets. A bankruptcy trustee is appointed in every Chapter 7 case to administer the
assets (if any) and distribute either the assets themselves or the proceeds from liquidating
(selling) them among the creditors. Some assets are exempt under Chapter 7, and cannot be sold
to satisfy debts. The assets that are exempt depend on specific federal laws and on state laws that
vary significantly around the country. Depending on your income, you may not be able to file for
bankruptcy under Chapter 7. Eligibility to file for Chapter 7 is discussed in more detail below.
Proceedings under Chapter 13 (wage earner’s bankruptcy) require the debtor to propose
a plan for repaying all or a portion of the debt in installments from the debtor’s income. Plans
can extend as long as five years, but some plans are much shorter.
Chapter 11 of the Code generally covers businesses that are restructuring while
continuing operations. While an individual may file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy under some
circumstances, such proceedings are more expensive and complex, and consumer debtors
normally use Chapter 7 or Chapter 13.
Under any chapter, once the bankruptcy case ends, most borrowers are discharged from
(no longer liable for) most of the debts they incurred before filing their bankruptcy petition,
called pre-petition debts. This means the court has excused the borrower from having to pay
most debts. The borrower then starts over again with a clean financial slate except that the record
of the bankruptcy will remain on the borrower’s credit record for up to 10 years.
It should be noted, however, that in a Chapter 7 case, the discharge does not wipe out a
secured creditor’s lien, student loans or support payments to children: these are still due and
payable, along with, perhaps, certain other, specifically non-discharged debts. In some cases a
discharge may be denied altogether.
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When Are Debts Discharged?
The bankruptcy court enters a discharge order relatively early in a Chapter 7 case. In Chapter 13
cases the borrower makes full or partial payment to creditors under a court-confirmed plan over a
period of at least three years and up to five years, and then receives a discharge.
Q. A bankruptcy filing could remain on my credit record for up to 10 years. How will that
affect my future finances?
A. Ten years is the outer limit for all types of bankruptcy. The consequences of having a
bankruptcy noted on your credit record could be severe. Creditors may deny you credit in the
future or charge you significantly higher interest rates. So long as your credit record has
unfavorable information, you may have credit problems. This means that you may have trouble
renting an apartment, getting a loan to buy a car, or obtaining a mortgage for a house.
In one respect, bankruptcy may improve your records. Because Chapter 7 provides for a
discharge of debts no more than once every six years, lenders know that a credit applicant who
has just emerged from Chapter 7 cannot soon repeat the process.
If You’re Self-Employed
Chapter 13 can be an effective tool for a self-employed individual: the business income and
debts could be included in the payment plan and schedules.
Working with a Lawyer
Q. How would I find a lawyer to represent me in a bankruptcy action?
A. There are a number of ways.
• The American Board of Certification has certified some 1,000 lawyers specializing in
bankruptcy. You can get their names and locations from the ABI website at:
• In addition, some states certify lawyers as bankruptcy specialists when they have had
significant experience in the field. Access an ABA website,
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320, for a list of state
certification programs, some of which encompass bankruptcy law.
• You could also ask a lawyer who you know well to recommend a specialist.
• Suggestions from a friend, relative, neighbor, or associate who has had a good experience
with a particular lawyer also may help.
• Bar associations and groups operated for people with special needs, such as the elderly or
persons with disabilities, often provide referral services. For a list of bar association
referral programs, access an ABA website,
• You might also find a lawyer by looking in the yellow pages of your telephone directory
and advertisements in your local newspaper. If you hire from the phone book or a direct
mail solicitation, be sure and check the references of the lawyer. Remember that phone
book ads and direct solicitation ads do not ensure you will receive good service.
Chapter One contains more information about finding and hiring a lawyer.
Do It Yourself?
Of course, it is legal and proper to file your own bankruptcy petition, though the more
complicated your debt situation, the more risky it is to represent yourself. It is not advisable to
hire a non-lawyer to help you file bankruptcy.
Q. How would I evaluate lawyers who might represent me in a bankruptcy action?
A. Be careful in your selection and make sure that your lawyer is familiar with bankruptcy law
and procedures, and has a good reputation. When you have an initial talk with a prospective
lawyer, does he or she seem to understand your problems and have solutions or are you in a
“factory” that merely processes paper?
Q. How can I learn about fees?
A. You can, and should, discuss your lawyer’s fees in advance and understand what procedures
are included in the fees. This will give you as clear an idea as possible of what the bankruptcy
procedure will cost. For more details, see the first chapter in this publication, “When and How
To Use a Lawyer.”
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Discuss whether a lawyer will charge additional fees if there are proceedings other than
filing the case. The basic case will include preparing and filing the petitions and additional
schedules and attending the creditors’ meeting. In some states, it may also include preparing and
filing a homestead deed. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, there may be reaffirmation agreements to
negotiate and sign, objections to exemptions or objections to the discharge of some or all of your
debts. In a Chapter 13 case, there may be objections to your repayment plan or the way you value
your assets. In either chapter, creditors may file motions for relief from the automatic stay,
seeking court approval to repossess property or foreclose on real estate.
Under some Chapter 13 cases, you can pay the lawyer from the assets of your estate
administered by the court in the bankruptcy case. Depending upon the complexity of your case,
your legal fees might range from $400 to $5,000. Generally, Chapter 13 is usually more
expensive than Chapter 7, though it helps that the costs may be included in your repayment plan.
World At Your Fingertips
•, formerly known as Debt Counselors of America, offers an interactive
website focusing on nonbankruptcy remedies such as debt consolidation. Access
• Debt Advice is a major non-profit site, affiliated with the National Foundation for Credit
Counseling and offering much information for consumers:
• Another non-profit site is American Consumer Credit Counseling:
• is a for-profit site that can help you reduce your debt:
• To find a certified bankruptcy lawyer, access the American Board of Certification:
• To understand more about bankruptcy, access the U.S. Bankruptcy Code and bankruptcy
• For bankruptcy basics and forms, access the site of the U.S. Bankruptcy Courts:
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Remember This
• You may try negotiating directly with creditors to obtain some financial relief. The
creditors may reduce their interest rates or allow a longer payment plan.
• You may seek help from a local financial counseling program or a consumer credit
counseling service. They may be able to help you consolidate (and reduce) your debt.
• Remember that not all for-profit and non-profit credit counseling services are equal.
Some are better than others. Contact the Better Business Bureau before dealing with such
a service.
• Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people and businesses can obtain a fresh
financial start. It is for people who are not in a financial position to repay their debts.
• Bankruptcy could be your only realistic option. If you think it may be, consult a lawyer
for advice.
• Select a bankruptcy lawyer with care. Do not rely solely on advertisements. Contact your
local bar association or refer to the American Board of Certification. Do not hire a non-
lawyer to file your bankruptcy.
• During bankruptcy, creditors cannot call you to collect debts. Once a bankruptcy petition
is filed, an automatic stay prohibits most collection activities.
• Bankruptcy cases begin with the filing of a petition to U.S. Bankruptcy Court.
• Use bankruptcy with caution; it remains in your credit files for as long as 12 years.
• There are different types of bankruptcy. Two major types for consumers are Chapter 7
(straight/liquidation bankruptcies) and Chapter 13 (wage-earner bankruptcies).
• Most consumer debts are unsecured. Some creditors are called secured creditors because
they have the right to seize and sell the collateral for a loan, such as a car or your home, if
payments are missed. Secured creditors have more protection in a bankruptcy than
unsecured creditors.
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Straight Bankruptcy: Chapter 7
Mr. Smith makes a modest income and has few significant assets. He rents an apartment. He is
struggling to pay his rent because of his mounting credit card bills and other debt. He defaults
on payments to many creditors. He receives phone calls every day at home and on the job from
creditors. He has consulted with a credit counseling service. They have told him his best option
is to file bankruptcy. What type should he file?
Bankruptcy law, like much of the legal system, can be quite complicated. It is intimidating to the
average consumer who simply knows he cannot pay his bills. You hear lawyers talk in legal
jargon about Chapter 7, Chapter 11, and Chapter 13. What do they mean? The following section
explains the most common type of bankruptcy for the average consumer—Chapter 7. It is the
type of bankruptcy for a person with few assets and comparatively high debt.
Q. What is Chapter 7 bankruptcy?
A. Straight bankruptcy under Chapter 7 is available if less drastic methods will not solve your
financial problems. It allows you to discharge (eliminate) most debts.
Q. Am I eligible to file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7?
A. It used to be possible for anyone to file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7. However, a new
bankruptcy law—the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005—
came into effect on October 17, 2005. Under the new bankruptcy law, you are eligible to file for
bankruptcy under Chapter 7 if you earn less than the median income in your state. If you earn
more than the median income in your state, then you will only be eligible to file for bankruptcy if
you pass a “means test” to determine whether you are eligible.
Discharge under Chapter 7 is not available if you filed for bankruptcy and were granted a
discharge under Chapter 7 within the past eight years.
Q. How does the means test work?
A. If you earn more than the median income in your state, then the state applies a means test to
determine whether you are eligible to file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7. In the means test, the
court applies a complex formula (subtracting costs of food/rent/mortgage etc, calculated under
IRS guidelines) to determine whether your monthly income after expenses have been subtracted
is less than $100.
• If your income is less than $100 per month, then you can file under Chapter 7
• If your income is between $100-$166 per month, then the court will determine
what percentage of your unsecured debt they could pay off using disposable
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income over a 5-year period and decide whether you should file under Chapter 7
or 13
• If your income is more than $166 per month, then you must file under Chapter 13
A bankruptcy lawyer can help you calculate whether or not you will be eligible to file for
bankruptcy under Chapter 7.
Q. What steps do I need to take before filing for bankruptcy?
A. Under the new bankruptcy law that came into effect on October 17, 2005, you must undergo
credit counseling at an “approved non-profit budget and credit counseling agency” within 180
days before filing for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13. Credit counseling can take place individually or
in a group, in person, on the telephone, or over the Internet. Section 111 of the new Bankruptcy
law provides that the bankruptcy court clerk shall maintain a publicly available list of approved
credit counseling agencies. So, if you are considering bankruptcy, contact your local bankruptcy
court to find a credit counseling agency near you.
Q. May I use bankruptcy to get rid of all my debts?
A. No, bankruptcy does not discharge all types of debt. If a debt is excepted from discharge you
remain legally responsible for it. Exceptions include
• tax claims,
• alimony,
• child support (including past-due support arrearages),
• property settlement obligations from a divorce or separation,
• most student loans,
• fraudulent debts (there is a presumption of fraud in last minute credit card binges
involving more than $1150 in either cash advances or luxury purchases within 60 days
before a bankruptcy filing),
• criminal obligations such as fines, and
• a court-ordered judgment from a drunk driving incident
Chapter 7 bankruptcy also will not release you from damages for “willful and malicious” acts
such as assaulting another person.
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Q. How does a Chapter 7 bankruptcy case begin?
A. It starts when you file a petition with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court asking it to relieve you (or, if
you both file, you and your spouse) from your debts. As of the date you file the petition, your
assets will be under the protection of the court. In addition, the law imposes an automatic stay,
which prohibits most collection efforts against you. However, if someone has co-signed a loan
for you, the automatic stay does not stop creditors from seeking payment from your co-signer.
When you file the petition, you also must file a Statement of Financial Affairs and
schedules that, among other things, describe your financial history and list your income, all of
your debts and all of your assets. If you are self-employed, your business affairs must be
included. These schedules are quite detailed, and the information you provide must be complete
and accurate.
Q. What is included in the liabilities portion of your schedules?
A. Typically, liabilities include:
• your priority debts (such as taxes and past due support payments);
• your secured creditors (auto and furniture dealers, home mortgages, and so on);
• your unsecured creditors (department store credit cards, medical bills and the like).
Be sure that you list all your creditors and their correct names and addresses. Even if you
are current on your bills, if you omit some, or provide incorrect addresses, you might not be
discharged from those debts. It may be very helpful to access your credit report before filing in
order to discover what debts are outstanding (the chapter on Consumer Credit explains how to do
that.) Also, make sure to give your lawyer copies of all your bills and collection letters.
Q. What should be listed in the assets portion?
A. You would generally include:
• all your real property, including any you own together with your spouse or other persons;
• all your personal property (such as household goods, clothing, cash, retirement funds,
accrued net wages and tax refunds to which you may be entitled);
• Any lawsuits in which you are a plaintiff or potential plaintiff (e.g. worker’s compensation
claims and/or personal injury claims).
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From the above, you will designate the real or personal property you want to claim
exempt from creditors. Note that your post-petition earnings are not part of the bankruptcy estate.
Q. Will I lose some of my assets if I file for Chapter 7?
A. Under Chapter 7, you might well have to turn over many, if not all, of your nonexempt assets
to the trustee, who is appointed to supervise your case. What happens depends upon the
classification, or value, of the asset and state or federal law exemptions.
Encumbered Assets
Assets pledged as collateral on a loan are known as encumbered assets. When you have
borrowed money to buy a car, boat, household furniture, appliance, or other durable item, the
lender commonly has a lien (legal claim) on that property to secure the debt until the loan is fully
repaid. You may also have given a lien on property you already owned to obtain a new loan,
such as a second mortgage to finance home improvements. Some creditors may obtain liens
without the debtor’s agreement, either because they have won a lawsuit against the debtor or
because the law automatically provides a lien for certain claims, such as for duly assessed taxes
or purchases that haven’t been paid for in full.
Q. What happens to encumbered assets during a bankruptcy?
A. In bankruptcy a claim is secured to the extent that it is backed up by collateral. Often the
collateral is worth less than the amount of the debt it secures, such as a $1200 car securing a loan
balance of $3000. In that case, the lender is undersecured and is treated as holding two claims, a
$1200 secured claim and an $1800 unsecured claim. On the other hand, sometimes a debt is
secured by collateral having a value that exceeds the loan balance at the time of bankruptcy, such
as a $65,000 home subject to a $30,000 mortgage. In that case, the lender is oversecured. The
lender is entitled to no more than the $30,000 it is owed. The excess value of $35,000 is referred
to as the debtor’s equity.
If you cannot make the required payments on a secured claim (and also catch up on any
back payments), the creditor has a right to take back the collateral after having the automatic stay
lifted or after the discharge. However, you may be able to keep your car, boat, or other
encumbered item by redeeming it or reaffirming your debt (as explained later in this chapter).
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Generally, the value of an asset is its liquidation value. This refers to what the asset
would bring at an auction, yard sale or pawn shop.
Q. What is the situation with unencumbered assets?
A. Unencumbered assets include (1) assets on which there is no lien at all and (2) the debtor’s
equity in assets that are collateral for oversecured claims. The debtor retains unencumbered
assets to the extent that they are exempt; otherwise they must be surrendered for distribution
among those creditors holding unsecured claims, or the equivalent value must be paid to the
trustee. However, if your unencumbered assets are worth less than a certain amount, or would be
difficult to sell, the trustee might abandon them, if he or she decides it would not be cost
effective to sell those assets and distribute the money to the creditors.
Q. What are exempt assets?
A. Exempt assets are assets that you must list on your schedules (specifically Schedule C) and
that you may shield from your unsecured creditors. Federal and state law define the assets that
you may protect in this way.
Which Law Applies?
In about 10 states you may elect to exempt assets under either federal or state law. In most states,
however, you may use only the state exemptions.
Q. Do the exemptions vary much by state?
A. Yes, they vary widely. For example, under the federal statute a person can exempt up to
$17,450 of the equity in a home. A couple filing jointly may exempt twice this much—a total of
$34,900—in equity in their home. This is called their homestead exemption. Thus, if the home
is worth $65,000 and has a $25,000 mortgage, creditors can claim only $5,100 (the difference
between the equity of $40,000 and the $34,900 exemption). As a matter of practice, the couple
would probably keep their home—perhaps at the cost of paying that $5,100 in nonexempt equity
to the trustee—rather than have it sold for the benefit of the creditors. The couple may also be
able to exempt the equity under another category.
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Florida, along with six other states, has no dollar cap on homestead exemptions. Florida
allows a homestead exemption that protects from creditors a debtor’s home and property so long
as it does not exceed half an acre in a municipality or 160 acres elsewhere. So investment
bankers and Hollywood stars who file bankruptcy could retain beachfront homes valued in the
millions. A number of other states have high caps on homesteads, in effect enabling debtors to
shield a considerable amount of money from creditors under the right circumstances. In Georgia,
in contrast, the homestead exemption is limited to $5,000.
However, under the new federal bankruptcy law, if you bought your home within 40
months of filing for bankruptcy, then you can exempt no more than $125,000 of its value (unless
you rolled over an interest from another house you owned in the same state). If the homestead
exemption in your state is lower, then the lower exemption applies.
Q. How do the exemptions work if you’re married?
A. In cases involving an individual married debtor or joint debtors, several specific points about
exemptions are worth noting.
• First, in joint cases, each spouse must claim exemptions under the same law, either both
relying on state law or both relying on federal law. If they each want to claim exemptions
under different law, they need to file separate cases.
• Second, when married debtors elect to apply federal exemptions (and often as well when
state law applies,) each spouse can claim the full exempt amount on his or her own
behalf, in effect doubling the amount of exemptions that a single person would be entitled
• Third, in some cases, such as when one spouse has debts and the other is debt free and
has assets, it might be preferable for only the one with debts to file. In more than fifteen
states, creditors of only one spouse are barred either completely or in large part from
reaching real and/or personal property owned by the debtor with a non-debtor spouse as
joint tenants or tenants by the entirety. Those bars generally apply in any bankruptcy case
where state law exemptions govern. The way your property is titled may determine the
exemption. Give your lawyer copies of your deeds, bank account statements and car
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Q. How do the exemptions apply if the lender has a security interest in the property?
A. As mentioned above, exempt assets are beyond the reach of unsecured creditors. Exemptions
do not ordinarily affect the rights of creditors to assets over which they have liens. For example,
homestead exemptions generally do not affect the rights of a mortgage lender to foreclose on the
debtor’s home. Furniture bought on store credit may be subject to a purchase money security
interest, and some credit cards attempt to create liens. Under some specific circumstances, the
Bankruptcy Code may permit the debtor to undo a lien and then assert exemption rights. This is a
matter about which it is probably best to consult a lawyer.
What the Trustee Can Liquidate
The Bankruptcy Code requires that you give all nonexempt unencumbered assets to the
bankruptcy trustee—that is, all the assets that aren’t exempted by the law and aren’t secured as
collateral to a loan. Unless it would be too costly, the trustee will then liquidate (sell off) these
nonexempt assets to pay your creditors.
In actual practice, over 85 percent of Chapter 7 filings are “no-asset filings”—that is,
there are no assets with value left for unsecured creditors after the exempt assets have been
claimed and the secured assets returned to the creditors.
Chapter 7 in Action
Q. How may I keep certain possessions that I do not want the trustee to sell?
A. If you are required to surrender some nonexempt property that you wish to keep—for
example, a car—you may under certain circumstances arrange to redeem it (buy it back) for a
price no greater than its current wholesale value. For example, if you owe $3,000 on your car,
but its wholesale value is only $1,200, you can recover the car by paying $1,200 to the creditor
who has a lien on it.
In the real world, of course, it may be very hard to come up with $1,200, which must be
paid from the debtor’s personal assets, not property that has been set aside for the distribution to
creditors. Possible sources of funds would include the debtor’s post-petition salary, proceeds
from the voluntary sale of exempt assets or loans from relatives or friends.
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Q. Is redeeming the property the only way to keep it?
A. No. You may reaffirm some debts, if the creditor is willing. By reaffirming debts, you
promise to pay them (usually, but not always, in full), and you may keep the property involved,
so long as you keep your promise. But, if you later default, the creditor can repossess the
property and the remaining balance is not discharged.
You have the right to cancel a reaffirmation agreement within 60 days after it is filed with
the court or prior to the discharge, whichever occurs later. Reaffirmation is not always in the best
interest of the debtor, especially when the reaffirmed debt relates to property worth far less than
the debt being reaffirmed. Most reaffirmations relate to mortgage loans and personal property
especially valued by the debtor, for example a car or a boat. Under the new bankruptcy law,
creditors must provide extensive closures to debtors about the risks of reaffirmation.
If you can, it is a good idea to take reaffirmation negotiations as an opportunity to re-
negotiate the loan, especially on personal property that has depreciated (i.e., decreased in value.
If there are items that are worth less than the secured debt against them and the debtor wishes to
retain them, a Chapter 13 reorganization may make more sense.
After discharge, it is too late to reaffirm, and the creditor may repossess the property, but
cannot collect the balance due.
Your Intentions
Within 15 days of filing, and usually as part of the papers you file, you must advise your secured
creditors on a court form whether you intend to surrender or redeem any collateral, or reaffirm
any debt. You can address the issue of reaffirmation at the creditor’s meeting.
Q. Can I protect some assets, such as a vacation home, by transferring title to relatives
prior to filing for bankruptcy?
A. Not if you just transfer them in return for nothing, or in return for an insufficient amount of
money. You will be asked whether or not you have transferred property within a year prior to
filing. If you have transferred property without getting enough in return, the trustee can cancel
the transfer and recover the property for your bankruptcy estate. Moreover, if the trustee
discovers that you made the transfer with the intention of defrauding any creditor, you may be
denied discharge and face federal criminal charges of committing a fraudulent transfer.
Page 20
The bottom line is that you cannot keep any debts or assets out of bankruptcy, and if you
do not disclose everything you may face criminal charges or loss of your discharge, even after
The greater the period of time between the transfer and the bankruptcy filing, the less
likely it is that the transfer will be perceived as fraudulent.
Q. What happens after I submit all the required financial information to the court?
A. The bankruptcy court clerk will notify your creditors that you have filed a bankruptcy
petition. Creditors must immediately stop most efforts to collect the debts you owe. A trustee
will be appointed, usually a local private lawyer approved by the court who does this kind of
work in the normal course of practicing law. Your bankruptcy case is a federal court action.
Q. What will I have to do?
A. The procedures may vary greatly by state, but you might be required to take the following
• In some states, you may have to file your homestead deed for exempt property in the
appropriate state court; there are deadlines for this that must be met. A homestead deed
is a document intended to protect the property from your creditors. Generally, it describes
the property and assigns an approximate value to it. The document may also have to be
recorded in the appropriate office (such as a land record office) in the county in which
you live. (In some states, you may be required to take this step before you file for
• You probably will be required to appear at a first meeting of creditors, where the trustee
will examine you under oath about your petition, Statement of Financial Affairs, and
schedules. Creditors can also question you about your debts and assets, and often attend
this meeting to discuss reaffirmation, surrender of property and related issues. Later the
trustee will determine whether to challenge any of your claimed exemptions or your right
to a discharge.
• If you disagree with the trustee’s decision, you may protest to the court, which will make
the final decision.
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Q. The trustee is obviously a key person. What are some of the options that the trustee has?
A. The trustee might “abandon” property that would bring no value to the unsecured creditors.
This will include nonexempt assets and those with minimal resale value.
Also, encumbered assets with no equity will be “abandoned” to the secured creditor,
because there would be no value from the sale to help pay off the unsecured creditors.
Q. How does the trustee go about wrapping up the bankruptcy?
A. After determining your exemptions, the trustee will assemble, liquidate and distribute the
value of your nonexempt assets (if there are any). The trustee will first distribute to secured
creditors the value of their collateral, or the collateral itself. Next, the trustee will pay unsecured
priority claims, such as most taxes and past due support such as alimony and child support. If
any funds are left, the trustee will make a distribution among your general unsecured creditors on
a pro rata (proportionate) basis.
Say, for example, that after the payment of secured and priority claims, the proceeds from
the sale by the trustee of your nonexempt assets equal 20 percent of your remaining debts. Then
the trustee will pay each general creditor 20 percent of what you owe. In return, the court will
discharge you from paying any remaining balance on your general unsecured debts.
The trustee will also pay the administrative claims such as his or her commission
(ranging between 3 percent and 25 percent depending on the value the trustee recovers) and
professionals, such as lawyers and accountants.
Should Husbands and Wives File Jointly for Bankruptcy?
They are permitted to, but whether it is to their advantage depends on many factors, such as how
closely entwined their finances are and whether they live in a community property or separate
property state (see this book’s chapter on Family Law). They’re best advised to seek the counsel
of a bankruptcy lawyer well versed in the law of their state. If they both file for bankruptcy at the
same time, only one case-filing fee with required charges (in all about $200) will have to be paid
to the court in a Chapter 7 or 13 case. State law may require separate homestead deeds. You
should be wary of a joint filing if there are already marital problems that appear to be leading to
divorce court.
Page 22
The World at Your Fingertips
• Access the site below for the Statement of Financial Affairs form:
• Access the site below for a list of exemptions in different states, from
• The Nolo website has information on states with large homestead exemptions. Go to, and search “Keeping Your Home During
Tough Times.”
• For a Q & A on bankruptcy debts, access
• For a Q & A on what debts are dischargeable and what are non-dischargeable, access
• For a discussion of reaffirmation of debt in bankruptcy case, access
• You can download the official bankruptcy forms for all types of bankruptcy from the
U.S. Courts website at: The forms are
long and detailed, and you may need a lawyer to help you complete them.
Remember This
• Chapter 7 allows debtors to discharge most of their debts. It is the most common form of
bankruptcy by individual consumers. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy case, a trustee is
appointed to supervise your case.
• If you earn less than the median income in your state, you are automatically eligible to
file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7. If you earn more than the median income in your
state, the court will impose a means test to determine whether you are eligible to file
under Chapter 7. If you earn too much to use Chapter 7, the court will convert your filing
into Chapter 13.
Comment [RH1]: The URL is really
too long to be useful – doubt anyone
would type this in. just–OK
Comment [RH2]: Provide source for
Chapter 7 forms?—OK – US Courts site
provides forms for all kinds of
bankruptcy. Might be an idea to put this
information in a “key information”
sidebar in Bankruptcy Basics?
Page 23
• When you file a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you must file schedules and a statement of
financial affairs. This includes your financial history, income, debts and assets. They are
quite detailed.
• On your schedules, list all your debts, including priority debts, secured creditors and
unsecured creditors.
• Some of your assets may be exempt from creditors during bankruptcy under either
federal and/or state law. States have different exemptions. Exempt assets are beyond the
reach of unsecured creditors.
• The Bankruptcy Code requires that debtors give all nonexempt, unencumbered assets to
the trustee. If these assets have sufficient value to make a sale worthwhile, the trustee will
then liquidate them to pay creditors.
• Debtors may be able to reaffirm some debts—that is, promise to pay them—in order to
keep certain assets. Creditors must provide lengthy disclosures to debtors who wish to
reaffirm debts.
• You cannot avoid the reach of creditors during bankruptcy by transferring title of
property you own in the 12 months before you file for bankruptcy. Generally, the period
for transfers is within one year of the filing, but, depending on the circumstances and
state law, transfers done more than a year before the bankruptcy may also be undone.
• You cannot keep any debts or assets out of the bankruptcy, and if you do not disclose
everything you may face criminal charges or loss of your discharge, even after
• Depending on state law, you may be required to file your homestead deed in the
appropriate state court (this is a document that shields certain assets from creditors).
• You must attend a creditors’ meeting during which creditors can question you about your
debts and assets.
• Bankruptcy does not discharge all debts. You are still liable for tax claims, alimony, child
support, property settlements, fraudulent debts, student loans and criminal obligations.
• Husbands and wives, depending on state law and the status of joint debt, may want to file
jointly for bankruptcy.
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Chapter 13
Mr. and Mrs. Jones make an excellent combined salary. Unfortunately, they underestimated the
effect of the declining stock market, costs of college for their children, extreme and unexpected
medical costs and other expenses. They have substantial assets that they don’t wish to see
swallowed up by creditors. They want to discharge some of their debt but can still afford to make
payments. They just need some relief in the form of reduced payment plans.
The Joneses might find that a Chapter 13 bankruptcy suits them better than a Chapter 7 filing.
Chapter 13 allows individuals with regular incomes to pay a portion of their debts under a
court-approved payment plan. The following section explains the basic features of a Chapter 13
bankruptcy plan.
Chapter 13 in Action
Q. What is Chapter 13 bankruptcy?
A. Chapter 13 allows individuals who have steady incomes to pay all or a portion of their debts
under protection and supervision of the court. Under Chapter 13, you file a bankruptcy petition
and a proposed payment plan with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. An important feature of Chapter
13 is that you will be permitted to keep all your assets while the plan is in effect and after you
have successfully completed it.
Q. Who is eligible for Chapter 13 bankruptcy?
A. Chapter 13 is available to almost everyone who has a regular income. The only other
requirement is that debtors have less than $290,525 in unsecured debts (such as credit cards) and
less than $871,550 in secured debts (such as mortgages and car loans). These figures are subject
to periodic adjustments. Anyone with greater debts usually must declare bankruptcy under
Chapters 7 or 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. In a joint Chapter 13 case those limits are not doubled,
but instead are applied to the total amount owed by the debtors.
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Q. How does Chapter 13 differ from Chapter 7?
A. The major difference is that in Chapter 7 you pay debts out of your assets; in Chapter 13, you
pay debts out of your income. So a repayment plan under Chapter 13 normally extends your time
for paying debts and usually involves your paying off more of your debts. The permitted
repayment period usually is three years or, with special permission of the court, up to five years.
If you earn more than the median income in your state, you may not be eligible to file for
Chapter 7 bankruptcy, and will have to file under Chapter 13.
Typically, the amount that you repay under a Chapter 13 plan is determined by the total
of your planned monthly payments over three years, given your good faith effort to do the best
that you can. Your payments represent either (1) full satisfaction of your debts or (2) all of your
disposable income for a three-year period. Disposable income consists of whatever is left over
from your total income after you have paid for taxes and necessary living expenses (determined
on a monthly basis). The plan must also pay secured creditors the value of their lien, over time,
and cannot change the terms of the loans secured by your home.
A Chapter 13 repayment plan often results in your repaying less than you owe. If you are
unable to pay a secured creditor the value of its collateral, it can choose to obtain relief from the
automatic stay to repossess the collateral.
Q. What steps do I need to take before filing for bankruptcy?
A. Under the new bankruptcy law that came into effect on October 17, 2005, you must undergo
credit counseling at an “approved non-profit budget and credit counseling agency” within 180
days before filing for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy. Credit counseling can take place
individually or in a group, in person, on the telephone, or over the Internet. Section 111 of the
new Bankruptcy law provides that the bankruptcy court clerk shall maintain a publicly available
list of approved credit counseling agencies. So, if you are considering bankruptcy, contact your
local bankruptcy court to find a credit counseling agency near you.
Q. Can I save my home and other assets by filing under Chapter 13?
A. Your home will be preserved under Chapter 13 if there is not substantial non-exempt equity in
the home, and you successfully complete the payment plan.
If not preserved in this way, home may be preserved under homestead exemption or
marital ownership law. However, the new bankruptcy law provides for a homestead exemption
of no more than $125,000 if the home was acquired in the 40 months before filing, or if the
debtor engaged in certain fraudulent conduct.
The vehicle will be preserved if plan is successfully completed and appropriate payments
are made. If not, it might be taken by creditors (unless arrangements are made to pay off lien).
Page 26
All other non-exempt assets can be kept by the debtor if the plan is successfully
completed. If the plan is not successfully completed, the non-exempt assets will be sold to pay
creditors, as in Chapter 7 bankruptcy.
Q. What are the mechanics of a Chapter 13 filing?
A. You submit your plan to the court and a Chapter 13 trustee, who is appointed by the United
States Trustee to handle Chapter 13 cases. The trustee will verify the accuracy and
reasonableness of your plan. The plan will then be distributed to the creditors. They will have the
opportunity at a hearing to challenge your proposal if they believe that it doesn’t meet specific
requirements of the Bankruptcy Code.
With that in mind, the trustee will want to be sure that your plan provides enough for you
to live on, but will also challenge expenses that are unreasonably high. The issue is whether you
are making a “good faith” effort to repay your debts, even if it means a reduction in your living
standards such as cutting your entertainment expenses down from five hundred dollars per
month. Since the trustee’s recommendation will carry considerable weight with the court, it pays
to be honest and open with the information that you provide.
Q. How is secured collateral valued for the purposes of a bankruptcy?
A. Secured creditors will have the chance to object to the value you place on the collateral and
the rate of interest you propose. In some jurisdictions, you should use the “Blue Book” retail
value for cars, unless you show something that would affect value, such as damage. The interest
rate does not have to be as high as in the contract, but you will prompt objections if you go too
If You’re Self-Employed
If you are self-employed and filing under Chapter 13, you will show your average monthly
business expenses and income. You would also include incidental income, such as part-time
wages for baby-sitting, alimony/support income, and rental income.
Q. What is this proposed payment plan?
A. If there is no objection to your proposed plan, it may be somewhat flexible. The plan that you
prepare for review by your lawyer should take into account your income from all sources and
Page 27
your reasonable necessary expenses. Your plan should anticipate any known future changes in
your income or expenses, such as retirement or a rent increase. What is left from your income
after paying living expenses will be available for disbursement to your creditors. [is this still
Your plan must provide for payment in full of all priority claims. These are certain
taxes, fraudulently incurred credit card debt, family support obligations (including overdue child
support and alimony), and most student loans. You can arrange to pay such overdue debts over
the life of the plan.
Q. What if there is an objection to the plan?
A. Under Chapter 13, a creditor or the trustee might object to your plan. If this happens, you
must re-draft your plan to address the objection.
Q. What happens once the plan is approved?
A. Once the court holds a hearing and approves your payment plan, you make regular monthly
payments to the trustee. These payments begin within a month of the filing. The trustee
distributes the money among your creditors according to the plan. A Chapter 13 discharge is
granted after completion of the payments in the plan (this is three to five years later). If the
payments are not completed, there are some circumstances under which a more limited discharge
may be granted, or the case may be dismissed or converted to Chapter 7, particularly if there is
significant equity in non-exempt assets.
Chapter 13 Trustee
The role of Chapter 13 trustees varies among judicial districts. Some trustees work with debtors
to help them learn to manage their finances, and may arrange for (or require) automatic payroll
deductions of the monthly payments to be credited directly to the trustee’s account for
disbursement to the various creditors. A small part of the monthly payments goes to the trustee
for these services.
Page 28
Q. What happens if I can’t keep up the payments under my Chapter 13 plan?
A. There are several possibilities depending on the circumstances. For example, if you have an
accident that causes you to lose time from work temporarily, you may be able to arrange a
moratorium, which means that you can miss a payment and catch up later. Further, if there is a
major permanent reduction in your income, for example, from lost hours due to a chronic illness,
your trustee may support a modification in the plan if you meet certain legal requirements. This
might involve either stretching payments out over a longer period and accordingly reducing the
amount of each payment or perhaps giving up some asset for which you had planned to make
payments. If you complete performance of your modified plan, you are entitled to a full Chapter
13-type discharge, described below.
Q. What happens if I can’t keep up with my Chapter 13 plan but just don’t do anything?
A. Bad things happen. If you fail to take the initiative in dealing with defaults under your
Chapter 13 plan—whether by modification, hardship discharge or conversion—a creditor or the
trustee may seek to have your case either converted to Chapter 7 or dismissed outright. If the
case is dismissed, the collection calls will begin again and you may have your car repossessed or
your home foreclosed upon as if there had been no bankruptcy.
The World at Your Fingertips
• The forms for Chapter 13 bankruptcies are available at:
• You can find more information and FAQs at the website. Just click on
bankruptcy and follow the links for more information on Chapter 13.
You Must Remember This
• Chapter 13 allows individuals with steady incomes to pay all or a portion of their debts
under protection and supervision of a court. Under Chapter 13, you file a bankruptcy
petition and a proposed three to five year payment plan with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court.
Page 29
• The bankruptcy trustee or court clerk will take your proposed payment plan and distribute
it to your creditors. Creditors will have a chance to challenge your proposals. Once the
payment plan is approved, you make monthly payment plans to the trustee, who then
disperses the money amongst the creditors.
• If you cannot make payments under a Chapter 13 plan, you may be able to convert your
case to a Chapter 7.
Page 30
Chapter 13 or Chapter 7?
Choosing the best form of bankruptcy for a particular situation is often difficult. This section
tries to help by contrasting Chapters 7 and 13, and gives specific information on the factors you
may wish to consider if you want to save your home.
Q. Compared with Chapter 7 (straight bankruptcy), what advantages may there be to
filing for Chapter 13?
A. There may be several advantages. The most important, probably, is that you will be able to
retain and use all your assets as long as you make payments to the trustee as agreed in your
Chapter 13 plan.
Keep Those Payments Up
What happens to your home and home loan in Chapter 13? To avoid losing your home, you must
make your regular monthly payments to the Chapter 13 trustee and make your monthly future
mortgage payments on your home as they become due after the filing. If you’ve skipped some
mortgage payments before you filed your Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you can put the delinquent
mortgage payments (with interest to account for your delay) under the Chapter 13 plan. In other
words, you can spread them out. However, to be sure of keeping your house, you must also make
the future monthly payments on your home mortgage loan as they come due. If you don’t, you
may have to turn your home over to the lender.
Q. Can you discharge more debts under Chapter 13 than under Chapter 7?
A. Yes. The discharge of debts under Chapter 13 is broader than it is under Chapter 7. Once you
successfully complete a repayment plan under Chapter 13, individual creditors cannot require
you to pay them in full, for example, even if you gave them false financial information when you
applied for the credit, or if you used some other fraudulent means to get credit. You can
discharge debt arising from embezzlement or intentional injury to others or their property, and
debts for cash advances or luxury purchases made shortly before bankruptcy.
Page 31
The story is different if you file for straight Chapter 7 bankruptcy. In chapter 7, any
creditor to whom you gave false or fraudulent information may object to discharging you from
repaying the debt you owe.
Q. What is the situation with co-signers under Chapter 13?
A. Better than under Chapter 7. Under Chapter 13, if you had people co-sign any of your loans or
other credit representing consumer debts, and you have the collateral, your creditors cannot
collect from these co-signers until it is clear that the Chapter 13 plan will not pay the entire
amount owed to the creditors. In contrast, if you file a straight bankruptcy (Chapter 7) petition,
your creditors have the right to demand payment from your co-signers immediately.
Q. Can I use Chapter 13 more often than Chapter 7?
A. Yes, this is another advantage. You may discharge debts under Chapter 13 more often than
under Chapter 7. The law forbids you from receiving a discharge under Chapter 7 more than
once every six years. However, Chapter 13 allows you to file every two years, although each
filing will appear on your credit record and all Chapter 13 plans have to be filed in good faith.
Note, however, that after you have been discharged under Chapter 13, you must wait six
years before you are eligible for Chapter 7 discharge. That six-year rule does not apply if your
Chapter 13 case paid your unsecured creditors at least 70 percent of their allowed claims and
your plan was proposed by you in good faith and was your best effort. [is this still the case?]
Q. I see the advantage of Chapter 13, but why might some debtors fare better in Chapter
A. There are several circumstances in which straight bankruptcy may be preferable.
First, there are many debtors for whom the advantages of Chapter 13 do not matter:
debtors with no nonexempt assets they particularly wish to keep, no debts excepted from
discharge in Chapter 7, no history of receiving any bankruptcy discharge within the last six years
and no co-signers on their consumer debt loans.
Second, the benefits of Chapter 13 may come at the price of committing the debtor’s
disposable income to creditors for as long as three or even five years. In Chapter 7, the debtor
can keep post-petition earnings free and clear from discharged pre-bankruptcy debts.
Page 32
Third, some debtors are legally ineligible for Chapter 13, either because their income is
not sufficiently regular to fund payments under a plan or because the amount of their debt
exceeds the limits mentioned above. [is this still the case?]
Fourth, the bankruptcy may be off of your credit report sooner with a Chapter 7 case than
a Chapter 13 case. This is because, in a filing under either chapter, the bankruptcy is noted when
the case is filed, but the time for when it comes off differs because the bankruptcy does not come
off your credit until discharge. So even though the seven-year clock (time on the credit report)
for Chapter 13 cases is far shorter than the 10-year clock for Chapter 7 cases, the clock runs from
discharge, and that can be three to five years later for a Chapter 13 case than for a Chapter 7
case. This makes the outer limit that a Chapter 13 bankruptcy can be on your credit report 12
years, while the outer limit of a Chapter 7 case is 10 years.
Saving Your Home
Q. It is very important that we keep our home. What’s the most important step we can
A. First, under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13, you will be able to keep your home only if you
continue to make the required monthly payments on your mortgages.
If you’ve fallen behind under Chapter 7, you must make arrangements acceptable to your
mortgage lender to catch up on any delinquent payments, and it’s up to the mortgage company to
decide whether to work with you. Under Chapter 13, you may be able to include the delinquent
payments in the payment plan and pay those off over, for example, three years, while
maintaining ongoing monthly mortgage payments. So you must have sufficient cash flow to
cover the payments to the Chapter 13 bankruptcy trustee and the regular on-going mortgage
As will be seen below, a willingness to make monthly payments on the mortgage will not
ensure that you can keep your home. But not making monthly payments in the future will make it
likely that you will not keep your home.
Page 33
Q. We think we’ll have to file under Chapter 7—what will become of our house?
A. Even if you’re willing to continue making the agreed monthly payments you can still lose
your home if you file for Chapter 7.
Under a Chapter 7 filing, if you have no equity and are in default, the creditor can
foreclose, even if your unsecured debts are discharged.
But if you have equity, your unsecured creditors may also have an interest in your home,
especially if it is worth more than the total of the mortgage debt and any applicable homestead
exemption. In that case, the trustee may take possession of your home and sell it for the benefit
of the unsecured creditors; that is, it may become part of the collection of your assets taken by
the trustee.
Q. Under what circumstances would the trustee take our home?
A. Whether the trustee will actually take your home will depend upon two basic factors: how
much equity is in the home and how much of the home’s value is sheltered by law from
The homestead exemption is the amount of your home’s value that the law puts out of the
reach of creditors. In general, the lower the exemption, and the higher the equity, the better the
chance that the trustee will take your home.
Q. Can you give an example?
A. Assume that the market value of your home is $90,000, and you have a mortgage of $55,000.
Your equity is the difference between those two figures, or $35,000. If your homestead
exemption were $30,000 (as in Colorado), the creditors could seek to claim the $5,000 left over
from your exemption. As a practical matter, the trustee would probably not go to the expense and
trouble of taking over the property and selling it for the benefit of the unsecured creditors, but
you could be called upon to pay the $5,000 to the trustee.
Of course, if the homestead exemption were $10,000 (as in Georgia and a number of
other states), then $25,000 might be realized through a sale, which would make selling the home
a more attractive option for the trustee.
Page 34
Sidebar: Warning
What if the Foreclosure Isn’t Enough?
A lender who recovers less from the sale of the house than the amount that you owe will have an
unsecured claim for the difference, which may be asserted and usually discharged in your
bankruptcy case. In some states, a confirmation action in state court is required to verify the
foreclosing mortgage company’s entitlement to such a deficiency claim.
Q. What’s an example of a case where taking the home could pay a great deal to the
unsecured creditors?
A. The greater the difference between the market value of your home and your mortgage debt,
the more likely is it that the trustee will find it worthwhile to take over your home and sell it for
the benefit of creditors. Take the example of the house in Colorado given above, but assume that
the market value is $190,000, not $90,000. Now, if the house is taken over by the trustee and
sold for the benefit of the bankruptcy estate, the funds available for unsecured creditors would
amount to $105,000:
Selling price
Less: Mortgage loan
Value of your equity
Less: Homestead exemption
Available for unsecured creditors
In some jurisdictions, to determine equity, you would also deduct the costs of sale, such
as a typical realtor’s fee. Alternatively the value may be determined by typical foreclosure results
(such as 80percent of retail,) or by reference to tax assessed value.
Q. Are there any states that shield all of a home’s value from creditors?
A. In a few states, such as Florida, there is no dollar limit on the homestead exemption, only a
limit on the acreage that can be shielded from creditors. In Texas unsecured creditors cannot seek
payment from a homestead, so long as it is not more than one acre in a city or 200 acres
elsewhere, regardless of the value of the property.
Page 35
However, the homestead owner will still have to make the required monthly payments to
the bank that is financing his $2 million townhouse in downtown Dallas or his home in Palm
In addition, if the home was purchased within 40 months before the bankruptcy, then you
can exempt no more than $125,000 of its value (unless you rolled over an interest from another
house you owned in the same state). If the homestead exemption in your state is lower, then the
lower exemption applies.
If One Spouse Owes a Lot…
Another factor in whether you’ll keep your home is whether you own the property with your
spouse. Let’s say you have plenty of debt, but your spouse has little or none. Many states
completely block or seriously limit your unsecured creditors from reaching property that you
own together with your non-debtor spouse. Much may depend on how you hold the home (i.e., in
what form of joint ownership).
Q. How can we preserve our home if we file under Chapter 13?
A. Under a Chapter 13 plan, your basic choice is either:
• to agree to continue your lender’s lien on your home and to make the required ongoing monthly
payments, in addition to agreeing to pay any skipped payments (defaults) through your payment
plan, or
• to turn the property over to the lender.
It is possible that if housing values are greatly depressed, a lender might be willing to lower the
monthly payments in order to gain some income and keep the house occupied. But don’t count on it.
An Alternative for Farmers: Chapter 12
Family farmers have the option of a special type of bankruptcy under Chapter 12 of the
Bankruptcy Code. It is one of a series of special farm-aid provisions enacted to help farmers
survive periodic economic slumps.
Chapter 12 allows family farmers with regular income to avoid foreclosure on their
farms by pledging part of the profits from their future crops to pay off the debts, particularly
those secured by the farm.
Page 36
Only farmers acting in good faith have the right to adjust their debts under Chapter 12. In
order for a petition to proceed quickly, as in other chapter filings, the debtor must submit to the
bankruptcy court a list of creditors, a list of assets and liabilities, and a Statement of Financial
Affairs. The farmer-debtor usually will require legal help. The process is similar to a Chapter 13
case but the discharge that is issued is that granted in a Chapter 7 case (subject to the same
The Bankruptcy Code specifically defines who can qualify as a “family farmer” under
Chapter 12, and you must meet this definition. Further, this Chapter has expired in the past and
may or may not be available at the time you need it.
The World At Your Fingertips
Good overall information on bankruptcy can be found at the following sites:
• The American Bankruptcy Institute website has particularly useful areas such as the
Consumer’s Corner, links to lists of lawyers who are certified bankruptcy specialists and
highlights of recent legislative developments:
• In print, consider Surviving Debt: A Guide for Consumers (2002), by the National
Consumer Law Center (NCLC). It is available for approximately $19.00 at bookstores or
directly from the NCLC, 18 Tremont Street, Boston, MA 02108-2336. You can also
order it online at
The website has some samples from the book.
You Must Remember This
• There may be several advantages to filing Chapter 13 instead of Chapter 7. A main
reason is that under Chapter 13 you will be able to retain and use all of your assets as
long as you make the promised payments. The discharge of debts is broader under
Chapter 13 than Chapter 7.
• There may also be advantages to a Chapter 7 bankruptcy. For instance, Chapter 13
debtors have to keep making payments for at least three to five years. In Chapter 7, a debtor can keep post-petition earnings free and clear from discharged pre-bankruptcy
348 debts. However, under the new bankruptcy law, not all debtors are eligible to file under Chaper 7.

• Under either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13, you will not be able to keep your home if you
don’t make the required monthly payments on your mortgage after the filing.
• Often, there is a homestead exemption with a dollar amount that is shielded from
creditors, but don’t assume that you will be able to keep your home simply because you file bankruptcy. In addition, if you bought your house within 40 months of filing for bankruptcy, you will not be able to exempt more than $125,000 of its value, even if the homestead exemption in your state is higher.


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